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We claim 1. In a method of producing iron wherein green pellets of an iron-oxide ore are directly reduced with a reducing gas without prior firing of the pellets, the improvement which comprises the step of increasing the compressive strength of the pellets during reduction by incorporating in the pellets during the formation thereof an organic low-temperature carbohydrate binder …


Green iron ore pellets are nearly spherical agglomerates produced in balling discs or drums from a mixture of fine iron ore concentrate, agglomerating agents and water [ 1 ].


ABSTRACT Humic substances exist widely in lignite coal as high molecular weight organic molecules. They can be used as binders in iron ore pelletization mostly in the form of salt, such as sodium humate and amine humate via extraction from lignite coal. It is worth determining if lignite can be used as a binder without extraction. As a composite binder of …


To make ore pellets, first iron ore is crushed and ground to remove impurities. The resultant ore is mixed with a binding agent and then heated to create durable, marble-sized pellets. These pellets are then used for manufacturing steel for the construction of bridges, cars, planes, bicycles, appliances, and much more.


Demand for iron ore pellets is expected to soar owing to the rising adoption in steel manufacturing plants. Sales are projected to increase at a CAGR of 4.3% between 2021 and 2031, with market ...


For the agglomeration process to form fine iron ore into uniform green iron ore pellets. Pallet Car. Pallet Car provides an extended service life and allows for reliable and safe operation to ensure the highest process availability. Dual Fuel Burner.


Green pellets were produced in the laboratory using a dry mixture of iron ore (magnetite with 35% hematite), plus 4% dolomite, 1% bentonite and 1% hydrated lime. To the dry mixture, 10% water was added. The moist mixture was put into a rotating disc that was 20 cm in diameter to make the green pellets that were 1 cm in diameter.


Magnetite iron ore green pellets are produced by balling moist concentrates to green pellets, which are then dried, oxidized to hematite, sintered, cooled and transported to steelmaking plants. The existing theory for balling is based on the capillary theory, but its applicability under industrial balling conditions is unclear.


The addition of lime (CaO) to the iron ore fines slightly decreases the productivity of green pellets, but increases the drop resistance and the compressive strength of green pellets. Further the strength of the pellets is directly proportion with the shrinkage that takes place during firing of the pellets.


The ore is crushed into a fine powder, mixed with water, making a slurry. Clay is added to the slurry and the mixture shaped into pellets and baked, forming a hard shell. The pellets are sent to a steel mill in order to extract the iron which is normally converted into steel.


Pellets will be a key part of the future of iron ore production along with magnetite concentrates, because the extremely high grade products can be used in the DRI process. Largely run currently by using gas to power the reduction process that take iron ore feedstock into steel, there are hopes DRI plants will be retrofitted to be run off green ...


Iron Ore Pelletizing Process: An Overview IntechOpen. 11-07-2018 Binders are used in the pelletizing of iron ore aiming to improve the performance of the process in the following aspects [ 1, 4, 11, 16, 17 ]: promoting and facilitating the balling; increasing the green and dry strength of the pellets; preventing the collapse of pellets in the initial stages of ...


Green (nonfired) pellets of iron ore are prepared by pelletizing the iron ore and 2 to 8 percent by weight of finely divided metallic iron with a particle size below 45 microns in the presence of an aqueous solution, suspension or dispersion of an organic binder, preferably a carbonhydrate. Surprisingly, the low-temperature binder, i.e. the starch, dextrine or the like, in combination …


Good quality green pellets are necessary for manufacturing iron ore pellets of sufficient quality. Classic tests such as the drop test and the compression strength test are used to predict whether the green pellets will stay intact during further manufacturing. However, in actual practice the pellet bed permeability is influenced by plastic deformation and not breakage of the pellets.


Iron ore fines are agglomerated into pellets and then indurated using a furnace to create iron ore pellets. These are typically fed to a blast furnace or DRI plant as part of the process to make steel. is the only supplier in the world that has both the …


Bed permeability is a critical parameter in induration of green iron ore pellets in travelling grate furnaces. Its control and optimization must be pursued in order to achieve higher productivity ...


LKAB's pellet products are now among the world's most climate-efficient iron ore pellets. Even so, our operations give rise to large emissions of carbon dioxide. Considerable emissions also arise later in the value chain, when our pellets are processed to make finished steel.


Pellets are obtained by adding an appropriate amount of water to the iron ore concentrate; this is a fundamental factor in the formation and growth of pellets, which creates a surface tension that holds the mineral grains cohesive, thus allowing their handling [ 6, 8 ]. This cohesive tension of fine particles due to water is called neutral tension.


Green pellets are made by combining moist ore with a binder and rolling it into balls using either a pelletizing disk or a pelletizing drum. The green pellets are then dried, preheated, and finally heated to a temperature below the melting point of iron oxides, approximately 1300 °C, to achieve strength.


Iron ore pellets are tiny spheres or pellets that are constructed by combining iron ore with other products in order to create materials that are easy to transport. The range of additional ingredients used in the pellets will vary, although it is not unusual for each pellet to contain some type of clay or limestone, as well as elements such as ...


Bentonite clay has traditionally been used as a binder to make iron ore concentrate pellets, but it is expensive and contaminates the pellets. Organic binders may be a viable alternative to ...


Iron ore green pellet diameter measurement by using of image processing techniques Abstract: Automatic Quality control is a vital process in many manufacturing process such as steel industry. Pellet size monitoring and control is a critical process which is done in steel making to improve quality of products.


Iron ore pellets are essential burden materials to improve the performance of mod- ... ical parameter to evaluate the balling ability of pellet feeds. In order to make green .


As a control, iron ore composite green pellets without biomass were produced with 98 wt.% of iron ore powder and 2 wt.% of bentonite. The composite green pellets with or without biomass were rolled and pelletized on a disc balling machine, with …


The Green pellet thus obtained is taken to an indurating furnace having heat resistant perforated cast iron traveling grate bars arranged on two rotating drum to make an end less belt. Green Pellet is evenly placed at the feed end & burners are arranged opposite each other on longitudinal sides of the preheating & firing zone.


Agglomeration During The Process Of Iron Ore Pelletizing. The Iron Pelletizing Process Part One Total Materia. The most commonly employed agglomeration technique is pelletizing by which a mixture of iron ore water and binder is rolled up in a mechanical disc or drum to produce agglomerates green or wet pellets.


mined deep underground. The ore is crushed into a fine powder, mixed with water, making a slurry. Clay is added to the slurry and the mixture shaped into pellets and baked, forming a hard shell. The pellets are sent to a steel mill in order to extract the iron which is normally converted into steel. CLICK HERE FOR


Basic pellets in all the basicity range shows acceptable green pellets properties (GCS, DCS and GDSN are above 1.2 kg/pellet, 4.5 kg/pellet and 12 Nos drops, respectively). The CCS of indurated (at 1280°C for 10 min) lime stone fluxed pellets increases with increase in basicity of pellets as shown in Fig. 6 .


create iron ore pellets from green pellets - longrivercoza. iron ore green pellet iron ore green pellet iron ore green pellet XSM excellent mining crushing machinery products or production line design, the company is committed to building the Chinese brand mine crushing and processing machinery, mainly crusher, mill, sand making our products (iron ore green pellet) in more …


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If the ore is a Hematite ore, coke or anthracite coal can be added to the mix to work as an internal fuel to help fire the pellets. This mixture is blended together in a mixer and fed to balling discs or drums to produce green pellets of size typically about 9-16mm. The green pellets are then fed to the induration machine.


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Pelletizing - LKAB

The total capacity of the plants amounts to approximately 28 million tonnes of processed iron ore products per year. The pellets are formed. In the pelletizing plant, a clay mineral, bentonite, is added as a binder in the iron ore concentrate. Pellets with a diameter of around 10 mm are then formed in large, rotating drums.


1. Introduction. Iron ore pellets (Figure 1) are one of the main raw materials for steelmaking.They are produced from ore fines in a process called pelletizing, which consists of two basic steps; the first is the formation of the soft green pellet from the iron ore fines and the second step requires a heat treatment to harden the pellet, which in its green state does not have sufficient ...


The iron ore concentrate is rolled in these drums to make pellets. Pellets are scrutinized and sorted according to their size specifications. The pellets that are over or undersized are crushed and returned to the balling drums. The pellets that are out of the balling drums are delivered to the roller feeder to remove the fines.


2.1.3. Preparation of Iron Ore Pellets. The green pellets were prepared by mixing of dry concentrate of iron ore particles, required amount of moisture (Water ≈10%) and pre-defined binder percentage, for 5-10 min. Then the mixture is added to the disc pelletizer, and it operated at a speed of 25 rpm to make pellets.


Therefore, in iron ore green pellets balled with a viscous binder, the main binding force originates from the viscous binder; only less than one half of the binding force is due to the capillary force. The most common binder …


Brazilian iron ore producer Vale has successfully tested the use of "biochar" in pellet production for the first time on an industrial scale, the company said on Thursday December 2. Vale made 57,000 tonnes of the material at its pelletizing plant in the northeastern Maranhão state, with 25% of energy in the furnace generated by biochar, a ...


These stages consist of (i) raw material preparation, (ii) formation of green balls or pellets, (iii) induration of the pellets, and (iv) cooling, storage and transport of pellets. Raw material preparation – During the process for pelletization iron ore concentrate from iron ore beneficiation plant is dried and heated to around 120 deg C.